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Pinus brutia
Brutia pine

Brutia pine (Pinus brutia) is a fast-growing conifer, often associated with the related Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis). Forests dominated by this species cover extensive areas, mainly on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean, where the tree is an economically important conifer species. Its wood is used for several purposes, including in the carpentry industry and for pulp and paper production, as well as for firewood. The seeds of the tree are also used in pastry-making. From the 1930s - 1970s, the species was widely planted in coastal areas of the Mediterranean for soil protection and windbreaks.

Brutia pine grows on all substrates and in most bioclimates of the Mediterranean region. It is drought-tolerant, with fire resistant cones allowing it to successfully colonize dry, abandoned and burnt areas.

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Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use

Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia - Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for Aleppo and Brutia pine

Publication Year: 2003
Author: Fady, B.; Semerci, H.; Vendramin, G.G.

Current conservation measures undertaken at national levels most commonly include in situ gene conservation networks specifically designed for the target species (e.g. in Turkey, 52 P. brutia conservation units) and forest reserves or national parks which include the target species. Ex situ measures include clonal archives, cold storage seed banks and DNA banks.

To increase the efficiency of in situ genetic resource conservation, a concerted management effort should be carried out range-wide. Although transfer of seed material is often legally possible, it should be avoided across zones and countries with different ecological requirements, notably because of cold, drought and insect damage risks.

Locally, some populations require specific attention and appropriate forestry practice.

Marginal populations.
As populations at high altitudes, in desert margins and mixed forests may contain valuable genes (resistance to drought, cold, pests) for adaptation under global warming, efforts such as gene reserves should be made to conserve them.

Population under recurrent forest fires. Because they are adapted to forest fires, both pines usually regenerate well after fire, using the seed bank released from serotinous cones. If regeneration happens to be poor in the first 2 years after fire, and if only a few isolated seed trees remain in the burnt area, artificial regeneration should be used to counteract the risk of genetic erosion in the juveniles. In this case, seed lots collected from large genepools should be used (e.g. at least 30 trees per population from at least three populations from a single seed zone).

Populations where hybridization may occur. Planting Aleppo pine where Brutia pine is present should be avoided in areas where frost and potential pest damage are limiting factors, or strictly monitored in areas where drought is the limiting factor. Owing to the anisotropy of between-species gene flow, the impact should be reduced when planting Brutia pine in the vicinity of Aleppo pine forests.


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