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Pinus mugo
Mountain pine

Mountain pine (Pinus mugo) is a small coniferous tree or shrub growing in the mountains of central and eastern Europe. Within the species, there are many varieties and subspecies; moreover, the tree is able to hybridize with other Pinus species. It is closely related to the mountain pine (Pinus uncinata), which is often taxonomically treated as a subspecies to mountain pine.

Given its extensive root system, mountain pine is important for soil stabilisation in the mountains. Its wood is used for constructing small artefacts and as a source of firewood. Oils from the pine’s needles are also used as a nutritional supplement and in medicine. 

Mountain pine grows in various types of rocky habitats, avalanche-prone areas and sand dunes. It is extremely tolerant to cold climates and grows in elevations ranging between 200 - 2700 m. Often, the mountain pine is found in pure habitats or together with other shrubs above the tree line.

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