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Quercus rubra
Northern red oak

Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) is a medium-sized deciduous tree native to the eastern United States, where it has a wide distribution range. The tree was introduced to Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries and is now naturally found throughout western and central Europe.

The tree is valued as an ornamental, given its symmetrical shape and significant red autumn foliage. The acorns are an important source of food for various rodents and birds.

Northern red oak was originally brought to Europe to improve timber yields and remains an important timber species in many countries today; however, the tree has generated controversy given its invasive nature and the current focus on promoting the declining European oak species instead.  

Northern red oak is often found in pure stands, where it grows on a wide variety of soils. However, the tree prefers deep, well-drained loamy soils. The species grows at elevations up to 1680 m, but usually occurs on lower north- and east-facing slopes. It is light-demanding and requires a large space to grow.

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