Tilia platyphyllos
Large-leaved lime

Large-leaved lime (Tilia platyphyllos) is a large and long-living tree. The distribution range of the tree is more limiting than the very similar small-leaved lime. The large-leaved lime, though,  reaches slightly further south and is rarely found in Northern Europe.

The wood is soft and resistant to splitting, which makes it valuable for carving, musical instruments, clogs and beehives. The European species of lime generally have high cultural value and are historically important in the open landscape, in urban areas and in recreational forests. The tree is important for honeybees and honey production and tea made from its flowers is believed to have anti-inflammatory properties.

The large-leaved lime is tolerant of shade and usually grows in dense forests in association with other species. It easily reproduces vegetatively, while sprouts also vigorously develop from the base of the trunk, making it suitable for coppicing.

in situ genetic conservation unit
ex situ genetic conservation unit
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Acknowledgements

The following experts have contributed to the development of the EUFORGEN distribution maps:

Fazia Krouchi (Algeria), Hasmik Ghalachyan (Armenia), Thomas Geburek (Austria), Berthold Heinze (Austria), Rudi Litschauer (Austria), Rudolf Litschauer (Austria), Michael Mengl (Austria), Ferdinand Müller (Austria), Franz Starlinger (Austria), Valida Ali-zade (Azerbaijan), Vahid Djalal Hajiyev (Azerbaijan), Karen Cox (Belgium), Bart De Cuyper (Belgium), Olivier Desteucq (Belgium), Patrick Mertens (Belgium), Jos Van Slycken (Belgium), An Vanden Broeck (Belgium), Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge (Belgium), Dalibor Ballian (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Alexander H. Alexandrov (Bulgaria), Alexander Delkov (Bulgaria), Ivanova Denitsa Pandeva (Bulgaria), Peter Zhelev Stoyanov (Bulgaria), Joso Gracan (Croatia), Marilena Idzojtic (Croatia), Mladen Ivankovic (Croatia), Željka Ivanović (Croatia), Davorin Kajba (Croatia), Hrvoje Marjanovic (Croatia), Sanja Peric (Croatia), Andreas Christou (Cyprus), Xenophon Hadjikyriacou (Cyprus), Václav Buriánek (Czech Republic), Jan Chládek (Czech Republic), Josef Frýdl (Czech Republic), Petr Novotný (Czech Republic), Martin Slovacek (Czech Republic), Zdenek Špišek (Czech Republic), Karel Vancura (Czech Republic), Ulrik Bräuner (Denmark), Bjerne Ditlevsen (Denmark), Jon Kehlet Hansen (Denmark), Jan Svejgaard Jensen (Denmark), Kalev Jðgiste (Estonia), Tiit Maaten (Estonia), Raul Pihu (Estonia), Ülo Tamm (Estonia), Arvo Tullus (Estonia), Aivo Vares (Estonia), Teijo Nikkanen (Finland), Sanna Paanukoski (Finland), Mari Rusanen (Finland), Pekka Vakkari (Finland), Leena Yrjänä (Finland), Daniel Cambon (France), Eric Collin (France), Alexis Ducousso (France), Bruno Fady (France), François Lefèvre (France), Brigitte Musch (France), Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio (France), Luc E. Pâques (France), Julien Saudubray (France), Marc Villar (France), Vlatko Andonovski (FYR Macedonia), Dragi Pop-Stojanov (FYR Macedonia), Merab Machavariani (Georgia), Irina Tvauri (Georgia), Alexander Urushadze (Georgia), Bernd Degen (Germany), Jochen Kleinschmit (Germany), Armin König (Germany), Armin König (Germany), Volker Schneck (Germany), Richard Stephan (Germany), H. H. Kausch-Blecken Von Schmeling (Germany), Georg von Wühlisch (Germany), Iris Wagner (Germany), Heino Wolf (Germany), Paraskevi Alizoti (Greece), Filippos Aravanopoulos (Greece), Andreas Drouzas (Greece), Despina Paitaridou (Greece), Aristotelis C. Papageorgiou (Greece), Kostas Thanos (Greece), Sándor Bordács (Hungary), Csaba Mátyás (Hungary), László Nagy (Hungary), Thröstur Eysteinsson (Iceland), Adalsteinn Sigurgeirsson (Iceland), Halldór Sverrisson (Iceland), John Fennessy (Ireland), Ellen O'Connor (Ireland), Fulvio Ducci (Italy), Silvia Fineschi (Italy), Bartolomeo Schirone (Italy), Marco Cosimo Simeone (Italy), Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin (Italy), Lorenzo Vietto (Italy), Janis Birgelis (Latvia), Virgilijus Baliuckas (Lithuania), Kestutis Cesnavicius (Lithuania), Darius Danusevicius (Lithuania), Valmantas Kundrotas (Lithuania), Alfas Pliûra (Lithuania), Darius Raudonius (Lithuania), Robert du Fays (Luxembourg), Myriam Heuertz (Luxembourg), Claude Parini (Luxembourg), Fred Trossen (Luxembourg), Frank Wolter (Luxembourg), Joseph Buhagiar (Malta), Eman Calleja (Malta), Ion Palancean (Moldova), Dragos Postolache (Moldova), Gheorghe Postolache (Moldova), Hassan Sbay (Morocco), Tor Myking (Norway), Tore Skrøppa (Norway), Anna Gugala (Poland), Jan Kowalczyk (Poland), Czeslaw Koziol (Poland), Jan Matras (Poland), Zbigniew Sobierajski (Poland), Maria Helena Almeida (Portugal), Filipe Costa e Silva (Portugal), Luís Reis (Portugal), Maria Carolina Varela (Portugal), Ioan Blada (Romania), Alexandru-Lucian Curtu (Romania), Lucian Dinca (Romania), Georgeta Mihai (Romania), Mihai Olaru (Romania), Gheorghe Parnuta (Romania), Natalia Demidova (Russian Federation), Mikhail V. Pridnya (Russian Federation), Andrey Prokazin (Russian Federation), Srdjan Bojovic (Serbia) , Vasilije Isajev (Serbia), Saša Orlovic (Serbia), Rudolf Bruchánik (Slovakia), Roman Longauer (Slovakia), Ladislav Paule (Slovakia), Gregor Bozič (Slovenia), Robert Brus (Slovenia), Katarina Celič (Slovenia), Hojka Kraigher (Slovenia), Andrej Verlič (Slovenia), Marjana Westergren (Slovenia), Ricardo Alía (Spain), Josefa Fernández-López (Spain), Luis Gil Sanchez (Spain), Pablo Gonzalez Goicoechea (Spain), Santiago C. González-Martínez (Spain), Sonia Martin Albertos (Spain), Eduardo Notivol Paino (Spain), María Arantxa Prada (Spain), Alvaro Soto de Viana (Spain), Lennart Ackzell (Sweden), Jonas Bergquist (Sweden), Sanna Black-Samuelsson (Sweden), Jonas Cedergren (Sweden), Gösta Eriksson (Sweden), Markus Bolliger (Switzerland), Felix Gugerli (Switzerland), Rolf Holderegger (Switzerland), Peter Rotach (Switzerland), Marcus Ulber (Switzerland), Sven M.G. de Vries (The Netherlands), Khouja Mohamed Larbi (Tunisia), Murat Alan (Turkey), Gaye Kandemir (Turkey), Gursel Karagöz (Turkey), Zeki Kaya (Turkey), Hasan Özer (Turkey), Hacer Semerci (Turkey), Ferit Toplu (Turkey), Mykola M. Vedmid (Ukraine), Roman T. Volosyanchuk (Ukraine), Stuart A'Hara (United Kingdom), Joan Cottrell (United Kingdom), Colin Edwards (United Kingdom), Michael Frankis (United Kingdom), Jason Hubert (United Kingdom), Karen Russell (United Kingdom), C.J.A. Samuel (United Kingdom).

Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use

Tilia cordata and Tilia platyphyllos - Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for lime

Publication Year: 2003
Author: Jensen, J.S.

A network of conservation stands is needed to conserve the genetic variation of limes, which have evolved through adaptation to different ecological and environmental conditions. Conservation and breeding programmes in all countries where lime is found is required to ensure the conservation of the genepool. Specific strategies should include:
  
Sampling strategies: Inventories are needed to provide an overview of the status of genetic conservation in each individual country and at the European scale. For practical purposes, provenance regions can be identified on the basis of ecogeographic variation and can be modified to take into account either expected gene flow or general knowledge about genetic variation within the species.

Central core regions: Large genetic reserves within the central core regions of distribution are needed for effective gene conservation purposes and should be given high priority, as large genetic variation is expected to be present in the core distribution area. In general, Tilia occurs in mixed species forest and is associated with a number of different plant species. Existing protected areas will only partly serve as genetic conservation areas, as they are not selected at random nor do they cover the core regions of distribution.

Marginal regions: In some regions, large gene reserves of Tilia are lacking, and these genetic resources may be extensively fragmented. They may also be subject to pollen contamination from new plantations originating from non-local seed sources. For these situations, in situ conservation may not be effective. In some of the marginal regions the regeneration of Tilia is lacking or inadequate. Ex situ conservation of Tilia genetic resources is therefore recommended in marginal regions. Preferably, these ex situ conservation stands should be established on the basis of reproductive material from within the local regions, in accordance with in situ silvicultural management principles. In situ conservation in marginal regions should include a larger number of populations.

Use and management of genetic resources: Breeding, improvement and management of genetic resources of Tilia should be combined with gene conservation to allow evolutionary forces to continue. Combining conservation and use is especially necessary for species of low economic interest (“use it or lose it”). At some locations the lime trees may be eradicated, if costly and extensive precautions are not taken. Alternatively, these resources could be used to promote the establishment of new populations from local seed collections.

A network of conservation stands is needed to conserve the genetic variation of limes, which have evolved through adaptation to different ecological and environmental conditions. Conservation and breeding programmes in all countries where lime is found is required to ensure the conservation of the genepool. Specific strategies should include:
  
Sampling...

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